Here you'll find links to research that doesn't fit neatly into our other tabs.
- What behavioral ethics might mean for corporate compliance and ethics programs: index of posts from Jeffrey Kaplan's Conflicts of Interest blog
- Goals Gone Wild: The Systematic Side Effects of Over-Prescribing Goal Setting. Ordonez et al (2009). Goal setting can lead to unethical behavior, as employees strive to meet targets by hook or by crook.
- Delaying gratification depends on social trust. Michaelson et al. (2013). So if you want employees to think long-term and work for the long term, rather than succumbing to short term temptations (such as cheating or cutting corners), it's important to create a culture with high trust.
- MBA teaching urged to move away from focus on shareholder primacy model. Financial Times. On how the "shareholder primacy" model took over in the 1980s.
- Mentoring: has any research examined whether formal mentoring programs improve ethical outcomes, or ethical climate?
We might do a page on the Philosophy of Business, focusing on the "shareholder primacy" model, and how it creates a climate that is more conducive to unethical behavior than do competing models, such as stakeholder theory. Prevailing philosophies are part of the top level of ethical systems -- the legal and cultural environment within which organizations make their decisions.
- Salesforce CEO Slams 'The World's Dumbest Idea': Maximizing Shareholder Value (Forbes, 2015)
We might do a page on group dynamics, examining research on what makes small groups behave more or less ethically:
- Groupthink (Janis, 1972, and more recent reviews)
- Hive psychology (Righteous Mind ch. 10)
- Risky shift, and slide to extremism
We might do a page on norms, covering research on how to change norms to promote ethical behavior
- Robert Cialdini's research on norm change
- Joe Henrich, Rob Boyd, and evolutionary models of norm change and stability
We might do a page on dehumanization, covering research on how people can so easily ignore the harmful effects of their behavior on others
- Bandura (1986) on dehumanization and moral disengagement
- Cover empathy inductions as a counter to dehumanization
We might do a page on the effects of power and money:
A) Power corrupts
- Lammers, Stapel & Galinsky (2010): priming power or putting people into a position of power makes people likely to behave selfishly, more likley to hold others to higher standards, and therefore more hypocritical. (See writeup in The Economist) [we have confirmation from co-authors that Stapel didn't touch the data]
- Keltner & Piff, work on power and social class
- John Antonakis and colleagues on power, corruption and testosterone.
B) Mere exposure to money makes people more greedy and less sociable:
- The psychological consequences of money, Vohs et al (2006) in Science. [and see a review article here]
- Mere exposure to money triggers a business decision frame and unethical outcomes. Kouchaki et al.
- Time, money, and Morality (Gino & Mogiliner, 2014)
We might do a page on rules vs. wisdom, or on cultivating wisdom. Two brilliant books have analyzed the problems caused by the bureaucratic mindset, and how to create wise organizations:
- Barry Schwartz and Ken Sharpe: Practical Wisdom
- Philip Howard: The Rule of Nobody: Saving America from dead laws and broken government. Here's a relevant quote:"Britain decided to move to “principles-based regulation” of the financial industry in 2000. The governing agency, the Financial Services Authority, known as FSA, enforced principles such as “treat customers fairly” and “conduct its business with integrity.” FSA oversight was generally thought effective, particularly for fostering more responsible conduct by banks to consumers."
We might do a page on enculturation and socialization. What should companies do in those crucial first weeks for new hires?
- Cable, Gino, & Stats (2013). Breaking them in or eliciting their best?
We might do a page on corporate political activity. How do corporate political contributions and lobbying affect the legal and regulatory ecosystem within which companies behave?
- Henderson and Ramanna (2013) Managers and Market Capitalism.
Here are short essays and articles, particularly useful for teaching:
- Put human nature back in business, by Ralph Gomory: "In business, however, human motivation is thought of mainly in self-interested financial terms.... In almost every aspect of business, people identify simple, measurable goals and try to tie self-interest to them." [put on pay & promotion page?]